Bases of a state ecological policy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2030

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gerb_prezedentI. Common issues

1. The global environmental problems connected with climate change, loss of biological diversity, desertification and other negative processes for environment, increase of an ecological damage from natural disasters and technogenic catastrophes, pollution of atmospheric air, surface and underground water, and also the marine environment, infringe on interests of the Russian Federation and its citizens.

2. The ecological situation in the Russian Federation is characterized by high level of anthropogenous impact on environment and considerable ecological consequences of last economic activity.

3. More than 54 percent of urban population of Russia in 40 subjects of the Russian Federation live under the influence of high and very high pollution of atmospheric air. The volume of the sewage dumped in superficial water objects without cleaning or not enough cleared, remains high. Practically in all regions the tendency to deterioration of soils and lands remains. The processes conducting to loss of fertility of agricultural grounds and to their exclusion from economic circulation intensively develop. Desertification has captured 27 subjects of the Russian Federation on the area more than 100 million hectares. Quantity of a waste which aren't involved in secondary economic circulation, and go on landfills, increases. Thus storage conditions and burials of a waste don't meet the requirements of ecological safety.

4. Development of these Bases is caused by need of ensuring ecological safety in the process of modernizing the economy and in the course of innovative development.

5. The strategic objective, the main objectives of the state in the field of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety and mechanisms of their realization are defined by these Bases.

6. The state policy in the field of ecological development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2030 (further - a state policy in the field of ecological development) is based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation, principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, and also on federal constitutional laws, federal laws, laws of subjects of the Russian Federation, documents of long-term strategic planning, including the Concept of long-term social and economic development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020, approved as the order of the Government of the Russian Federation from November 17, 2008 of No. of 1662-r

II. Strategic goal and principles of a state policy in the field of ecological development

7. A strategic objective of the state policy in the field of ecological development is the solution of the social and economic tasks providing environmental friendly and sustainable economic growth, preservation of favorable environment, biological diversity and natural resources for satisfaction of requirements of present and future generations, realization of the right of each person on favorable environment, law and order strengthening in the field of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety.

8. These bases are implemented according to the following principals:

а) observation of human right on favorable environment;

b) providing favorable conditions of activity of the person;

c) scientifically reasonable combination of ecological, economic and social interests of the person, society and the state with a view of sustainable development and providing favorable environment and ecological safety;

d) protection, reproduction and rational use of natural resources as necessary conditions of providing favorable environment and ecological safety;

e) priority of preservation of natural ecological systems, natural landscapes and natural complexes;

f) responsibility of federal public authorities, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation and local governments (further - public authorities) for providing favorable environment and ecological safety in the respective territories;

g) a presumption of ecological danger of planned economic and other activity;

h) obligation of an assessment of planned impact of economic and other activity on environment;

i) prohibition of implementation of the economic and other activity, which consequence of influence are unpredictable for environment, and also implementation of projects which can lead to degradation of natural ecological systems, change and (or) to destruction of genetic fund of plants, animal and other organisms, exhaustion of natural resources and other negative changes of environment;

j) ensuring compliance of economic and other activity to the established norms and requirements in the field of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety;

k) observance of the right of each person on receiving reliable information about a state of environment;

l) participation of citizens in the decision making process concerning their rights on favorable environment;

m) legal liability for violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation about environmental protection;

n) a full recovery of the harm caused to environment;

o) participation of citizens, public and other noncommercial associations in the solution of tasks in the field of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety, considering their opinion in the decision making process, planning and implementation of economic and other activity which can have negative impact on environment;

р) development of the international cooperation in the solution of global environmental problems and application of the international standards in the field of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety.

III. The main objectives of the state policy in the field of ecological development

9. Achievement of a strategic objective of the state policy in the field of ecological development is provided with the solution of the following main objectives:

а) formation of an effective control system in the field of environmental protection and ensuring the ecological safety providing interaction and coordination of activity of public authorities;

b) improvement of standard legal support of environmental protection and ecological safety;

c) ensuring environmental friendly and sustainable economic growth and introduction of ecologically effective innovative technologies;

d) prevention and reduction of the current negative impact on environment;

e) restoration of the broken natural ecological systems;

f) ensuring ecologically safe management of wastes;

g) environment preservation, including natural ecological systems, objects of an animal and flora;

h) development of economic regulation and market instruments of environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety;

i) improvement of system of the state environmental monitoring (environment monitoring) and forecasting of emergency situations of natural and technogenic character, and also climate changes;

j) scientific, information and analytical assistance of environmental protection and ecological safety;

k) formation of ecological culture, development of ecological and common education;

l) providing of effective participation of citizens, public associations, non-profit organizations and business community in managing of issues connected with environmental protection and ecological safety;

m) development of the international cooperation in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety.

IV. The main mechanisms of realization of a state policy in the field of ecological development

10. When solving the problem of formation of an effective control system in the field of environmental protection and ensuring the ecological safety providing interaction and coordination of activity of public authorities, the following mechanisms of realization of the state policy in the field of ecological development (further - mechanisms) are used:

а) improvement of differentiation of powers between public authorities in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety;

b) establishment of such criterion of an efficiency assessment of activity of public authorities, as a state of environment and ecological safety in the respective territories, defined on the basis of system of objective indicators and parameters;

c) increase of efficiency of the state ecological supervision at federal and regional levels;

d) introduction of methodology of definition and an assessment of ecological risks in a control system of quality of environment for the purpose to increase the validity of adoption of administrative decisions.

11. By solving the problem of improvement of regulatory support of environmental protection and ecological safety the following mechanisms are used:

а) adoption of legislative and other regulatory legal acts with a view of realization of state policy in the field of ecological development;

b) creation of structural and complete, complex and consistent system of legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental protection, ecological safety and rational environmental management;

c) creation of standard and legal base of introduction and application of a strategic ecological assessment by adoption of plans and programs realization of which can affect environment;

г) strengthening of responsibility for violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation about environmental protection and ensuring inevitability of punishment for ecological crimes and other offenses.

12. On solving the problem of ensuring the environmental friendly sustainable economic growth and introduction of ecologically effective innovative technologies the following mechanisms are used:

а) formation of the effective, competitive and ecologically focused model of economic development providing the greatest effect at preservation of environment, its rational use and minimization of negative impact on environment;

b) introduction of innovative resource-saving, ecologically safe and effective technologies on the basis of a uniform technological platform with active participation of the state, business community, scientific and research organizations, public associations and non-profit organizations;

c) measuring of absolute and specific efficiency indicators of resources and energy use, negative impact on environment in the process of providing state regulation of nature protection activity and planning of actions for environmental protection, and also by assessment of economic efficiency as a whole and depend on branches.

13. By solving the problem of prevention and decrease in the current negative impact on environment the following mechanisms are used:

а) ecological rationing on the basis of technological standards under condition of ensuring acceptable risk for environment and population health;

b) a stage-by-stage exception of practice of establishment of temporary emissions above permitted standard and dumpings of polluting substances in environment;

c) decrease in specific indicators of emissions and dumpings of polluting substances in environment, reduction of wastes volumes by types of economic activity till the level corresponding to similar indicators, reached in economically developed countries;

d) establishment of obligation of carrying out the state ecological examination of project documentation of ecologically dangerous objects, including radioactive, chemically and biologically dangerous objects;

e) improvement of procedure and methodology of an assessment of impact on environment and its evalution by decision-making at all levels, including harmonization of procedure of carrying out such assessment according to international treaties of the Russian Federation and creation of standard and legal base for a strategic ecological assessment;

f) increase of construction of buildings certificated in system of voluntary ecological certification of real estate objects taking into account the international experience of application of "green" standards;

g) implementation of the measures provided by the Climatic doctrine of the Russian Federation and documents, directed on its realization.

14. By solving problem of restoration of the broken natural ecological systems the following mechanisms are used:

а) inventory of territories with the purpose to find out areas with unfavourable ecological situation for implementation of the programs directed on minimization of negative impact on environment and elimination of an ecological damage, connected with last economic and other activity;

б) organization of works for evalutaion and stage-by-stage elimination of ecological consequences of last economic and other activity;

в) development of legal, economic, organizational and methodical mechanisms of compensation of the harm caused to environment;

г) preservation and restoration of protective and forming functions of natural ecological systems out of especially protected natural territories.

15. By the solution of the problem of ecologically safe waste management the following mechanisms are used:

а) the prevention and reduction of waste volumes, their involvement in economic circulation by means of the most complete use of initial raw materials and secondary resources, prevention of formation of a waste in a source of their origin, reduction of volumes of wastes and decrease the level of danger of a waste, processing, regenerations, recuperation, recycling of wastes;

b) introduction and application of low-waste and resource-saving technologies and equipment;

c) creation and development of infrastructure of ecologically safe waste disposal, their neutralization and placement;

d) stage-by-stage introduction of a ban on burial of the non-processed wastes which has not passed sorting, mechanical and chemical processing, and also deviations which can be used as secondary raw materials (scrap metal, paper, glass and plastic container, car tires and accumulators and others);

e) establishment of responsibility of producers for ecologically safe disposal of their products which have lost the consumer properties, and also the related packages;

е) ensuring ecological safety at storage and landfilling of wastes and ecological restoration of territories used for wastes storage and landfills after shutting down of the specified objects.

16. For the solution of the problem of preservation of environment, including natural ecological systems, objects of an animal and flora, the following mechanisms are used:

а) strengthening of protection and development of system of especially protected natural territories of federal, regional and local value in strict accordance with their target mission;

b) creation of effective system of the measures directed on preservation of rare objects and objects being under the threat of disappearance of an animal and flora and places of their dwelling;

c) formation and providing steady functioning of systems of protected natural territories of different levels and categories with a view of preservation of a biological and landscape diversity;

d) prevention of uncontrollable distribution on the territory of the Russian Federation of alien (invasive) animal species, plants and microorganisms;

e) preservation of genetic fund of wild animals;

f) solution of environmental problems of the Baikal natural territory, regions of the North and Arctic, territories of traditional environmental management of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and Far East.

17. By solving the problem of development of economic regulation and market tools for environment protection following mechanisms are used:

a) establishment of a payment for negative influence on environment taking into account the expenses connected with realization of nature protection actions;

b) replacement of practice of collection of a payment for super limit environmental contamination with compensation of the harm caused to environment;

c) stimulation of the enterprises which are carrying out the programs of ecological modernization in the manufacturing process and ecological rehabilitation of corresponding territories, and also stimulation of wide application of state-private partnership using state financing (co-financing) actions for improvement ecologically unfavorable territories, liquidation of the ecological damage connected with previous economic and other activity;

d)formation of the market of environmental friendly production, technologies and the equipment, and also nature protection services;

e) support of the technological modernization providing reduction of anthropogenous impact on environment, unlimited use of renewable and rational use of non-renewable natural resources;

f) development of market tools of preservation of the environment and providing of ecological safety;

g) providing of advantages (upon other things being equal) at placing of orders for deliveries of goods, performance of works, rendering of services for the state and municipal needs to the goods, works, the services meeting established ecological requirements;

h)Stimulation of attraction of investments for rational and an effective utilization of natural resources, reduction of negative influence by environment, manufacture of non-polluting production, introduction of the resource-saving technologies meeting requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation about preservation of the environment;

i) stage-by-stage introduction of system of declaring of observance of ecological requirements and carrying out ecological audit;

j) increase of ecological and social responsibility of business;

k) stimulation of gathering, sorting and use of a waste as secondary raw materials and energy sources;

l) state regulation of import of equipment and technologies which meet national and international ecological requirements in to the Russian Federation.

18. By the solution of a problem of creation of modern system of the state environmental monitoring (environment monitoring) and forecasting of emergency situations of natural and technogenic character, and also climate changes the following mechanisms are used:

18. При решении задачи создания современной системы государственного экологического мониторинга (мониторинга окружающей среды) и прогнозирования чрезвычайных ситуаций природного и техногенного характера, а также изменений климата используются следующие механизмы:

а) creation and development of the uniform automated state system of the environmental monitoring facilitated with modern measuring, analytical equipment and information means;

b) introduction of methods of measuring the negative impact on environment using the tool (automated) systems;

c) development of a network of supervision and the programs of data processing allowing to receive reliable information about a state of environment in due time ;

d) use of results of environmental monitoring by implementation of environmental protection, making decisions concerning realization of planned economic and other activity, implementation of the state ecological supervision, and also by drawing up of forecasts social economic development.

19. By the solution of a problem of scientific and information analytical ensuring of environmental protection and ecological safety the following mechanisms are used:

а) expansion of complex basic and applied researches in the field of forecasting of threats of ecological character, and also the negative consequences connected with climate change;

b) development and use of scientifically reasonable and objective indicators of technogenic impact on environment and indicators of ecological efficiency of nature protection activity;

c) stimulation of research and developmental works in the field of environmental protection, the cost-effective use of resources and ecological safety.

20. By the solution of a problem of formation of ecological culture, development of ecological and common education following mechanisms are used:

а) formation of ecologically responsible outlookby all segments of the population, first of all by youth;

b) the governmental support of distribution of data of an ecological and resource-saving orientation through mass media, and also carrying out thematic actions;

c) integration of questions of environmental protection in new educational standards;

d) orientation of process of education and training towards formation of ecologically responsible behavior, including means of integration of the corresponding requirements to formation of bases of ecological literacy of population in federal state educational standards;

e) the state support of activity of the educational institutions which are carrying out training in the field of environmental protection;

f) development of system of preparation and professional development in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety of senior staff and the experts responsible for implementation of economic and other activity which renders or can have negative impact on environment;

g) inclusion of questions of formation of ecological culture, ecological and common education in the state, federal and regional programs.

21. By the realization of a task to ensure effective participation of citizens, public associations, non-profit organizations and business communities in the solution of the questions connected with environmental protection and ecological safety, following mechanisms are used:

а) participation of business community, the scientific and educational organizations, public associations and non-profit organizations in development, discussion and decision-making in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety, and also in nature protection activity;

b) participation and consideration of legitimate interests of parties involved in the procedure of an assessment of impact of economic and other activity on environment, including a strategic ecological assessment, during the developing and the approval of projects and the programs which realization can affect environment and population health;

c) ensuring openness and availability of information about the state of environment and measures for its protection, about activity of public authorities and decisions accepted by them;

d) ensuring publicity of information containing in declarations and permissions which have impact on environment, except for data, containing secret information protected by the law;

e) increase of information openness of the industrial enterprises regarding their negative impact on environment and measures for decreasing of such negative influence, and also development of voluntary mechanisms of ecological responsibility of the organizations with participation of the state and transition of the state corporations to the obligatory non-financial reporting in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety according to the international standards. The specified reporting is subject to audit by the independent third parties and is certified by them.

22. By the solution of the problem of development of the international cooperation in the field of environmental protection the following mechanisms are used:

а) realization of measures for enhancing cooperation with the foreign states and the international organizations in the nature protection sphere, directed on more effective upholding and protection of interests of the Russian Federation with participation in international treaties of a nature protection orientation, and also parrying of the threats connected with cross-border pollution;

b) development of the international information exchange and participation in the international projects in the priority directions of development of a science, equipment and technologies in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety, protection of environment, including in the Arctic;

c) introduction of the international environmental standards, systems of confirmation of compliance to ecological requirements, their reduction in compliance with the international systems;

d) harmonization of the legislation of the Russian Federation about environmental protection with the international ecological law.

23. Realization of a state policy in the field of ecological development is provided by the implementation of effective activity of public authorities within the powers provided to them in interaction with business community, scientific community, public and other organizations:

а) by the developing, discussion and adoption of regulatory legal acts and normative technical documentation;

b) when developing long-term programs of social economic development, federal and regional programs in the field of environmental protection;

c) by the planning and making decisions on implementation of the economic and other activity connected with possible negative impact on environment in the territory of the Russian Federation, a continental shelf and in an exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation.

24. The state policy in the field of ecological development is carried out according to the plan of action on realization of the real Bases, approved by the Government of the Russian Federation.

25. Target indicators of the solution of the main objectives of a state policy in the field of ecological development, quantitative values on their achievement are defined in the main activities of the Government of the Russian Federation, concepts of long-term social and economic development of the Russian Federation on the corresponding periods, and also in federal and regional programs in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety.

26. Financing of the state policy in the field of ecological development is carried out at the expense of means of the federal budget, budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation and local budgets, and also at the expense of means of extra-budgetary sources, including the public-private partnership.